# String Methods¶

The “dot notation” is the way we connect an object to one of its attributes or to invoke a method on that object. There are a wide variety of methods for string objects. Try the following program.

In this example, upper is a method that can be invoked on any string object to create a new string in which all the characters are in uppercase. lower works in a similar fashion changing all characters in the string to lowercase. (The original string ss remains unchanged. A new string tt is created.)

In addition to upper and lower, the following table provides a summary of some other useful string methods. There are a few activecode examples that follow so that you can try them out.

Method Parameters Description
upper none Returns a string in all uppercase
lower none Returns a string in all lowercase
strip none Returns a string with the leading and trailing whitespace removed
count item Returns the number of occurrences of item
replace old, new Replaces all occurrences of old substring with new
find item Returns the leftmost index where the substring item is found
rfind item Returns the rightmost index where the substring item is found
index item Like find except causes a runtime error if item is not found
rindex item Like rfind except causes a runtime error if item is not found
split item Splits a string into a list based on specified character where it will split string at

You should experiment with these methods so that you understand what they do. Note once again that the methods that return strings do not change the original. You can also consult the Python documentation for strings.

Check your understanding

rec-5-31: What is printed by the following statements?

s = "python rocks"
print s.count("o") + s.count("p")

• (A) 0
• There are definitely o and p characters.
• (B) 2
• There are 2 o characters but what about p?
• (C) 3
• Yes, add the number of o characters and the number of p characters.

rec-5-32: What is printed by the following statements?

s = "python rocks"
print s[1]*s.index("n")

• (A) yyyyy
• Yes, s[1] is y and the index of n is 5, so 5 y characters. It is important to realize that the index method has precedence over the repetition operator. Repetition is done last.
• (B) 55555
• Close. 5 is not repeated, it is the number of times to repeat.
• (C) n
• This expression uses the index of n
• (D) Error, you cannot combine all those things together.
• This is fine, the repetition operator used the result of indexing and the index method.
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